R290, also known as propane, is a hydrocarbon refrigerant gas used in small refrigeration systems such as domestic refrigerators and freezers.

R290, also known as propane, is a hydrocarbon refrigerant gas that is commonly used in small refrigeration systems, such as domestic refrigerators and freezers. It is a colorless, odorless gas that is non-toxic and has a low Global Warming Potential (GWP), making it an environmentally friendly alternative to some other refrigerants. Propane has a high cooling capacity and energy efficiency, which has made it a popular choice for domestic refrigeration systems. However, like R600a, it is highly flammable, which can be a safety concern if not handled properly. Despite this, R290 is widely adopted in some countries and regions as a replacement for older refrigerants with higher GWP.

General Information

Chemical Name
  • Propane

Linear Formula
  • C3H8

Refrigerant Class
  • HC

  • R-290

  • R-600a (isobutane), R-1270 (propylene), R-441A

Physical Properties

Molecular Weight
  • 44.1 g/mol

Boiling Point
  • -42.1°C

Freezing Point
  • -188.3°C

Critical Temperature
  • 96.67°C

Vapor Pressure
  • 7.9 MPa (25°C)

Vapor Density
  • 1.53 (air = 1.0)

Relative Density
  • 0.58 g/cm³ (liquid at 25°C)

Water Solubility
  • 0.05 g/L (25°C)

Evaporation Rate
  • 5.24 (n-butyl acetate = 1.0)


  • Highly flammable

Flammability Range
  • 2.1 – 10.1% (in air)

Flash Point
  • -104°C (closed cup)

Global Warming Potential (GWP)
  • 3

Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP)
  • 0

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