R600a, also known as butane is commonly used in small refrigeration systems, such as refrigerators and freezers

R600a, also known as isobutane, is a hydrocarbon refrigerant gas that is commonly used in small refrigeration systems, such as refrigerators and freezers. It is a colorless, odorless gas that is non-toxic and has a low Global Warming Potential (GWP), which makes it an environmentally friendly alternative to some other refrigerants. Isobutane has a high cooling capacity and energy efficiency, which has made it a popular choice for domestic refrigeration systems. However, it is highly flammable, which can be a safety concern if not handled properly. Despite this, R600a has been widely adopted in Europe and other regions as a replacement for older refrigerants with higher GWP.

General Information

Chemical Name
  • Isobutane

Linear Formula
  • C4H10

Refrigerant Class
  • HC

  • R-600a

  • R-290 (propane), R-1270 (propylene), R-441A

Physical Properties

Molecular Weight
  • 58.12 g/mol

Boiling Point
  • -11.7°C

Freezing Point
  • -134.7°C

Critical Temperature
  • 134.7°C

Vapor Pressure
  • 3.64 MPa (25°C)

Vapor Density
  • 1.86 (air = 1.0)

Relative Density
  • 0.55 g/cm³ (liquid at 25°C)

Water Solubility
  • 0.029 g/L (25°C)

Evaporation Rate
  • 3.6 (butyl acetate = 1.0)


  • Highly flammable

Flammability Range
  • 1.8 – 8.4% (in air)

Flash Point
  • -49°C

Global Warming Potential (GWP)
  • 3

Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP)
  • 0

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